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    A framework for elucidating the temperature dependence of fitness

    We term this the “seesaw effect.” Using a long‐term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth.

    Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations.

    The effect of body mass and temperature at the individual level reflects at the ecological level, in variables such as the intrinsic growth rate of populations, the strength of competition and predator-prey interactions (e.g. The Arrhenius equation is based on the fact that most chemical reactions, including those involved in metabolism, do not happen spontaneously because of an energetic threshold called Activation Energy (E).

    As the temperature increases there is more energy available to overcome the energetic threshold represented by E, hence reactions develop at an exponentially faster rate. (2014) suggest that the temperature-driven changes on individuals’ metabolism lead to ecological variables to vary with temperature in a similar, exponential fashion.

    Bentley, (2014) Deviations from symmetrically self-similar branching in trees predicts altered hydraulics, mechanics, light interception, and metabolic scaling, New Phytologist 201(1) , 217-229.

    Savage , (2014) A framework for the temperature dependence of trophic interactions and the consequences of asymmetries in consumer and resource responses, Journal of Animal Ecology 83(1) , 70-84.

    Savage , (2015) Quantifying statistical self similarity in human vessel networks using data extracted automatically from MRI, Public Library of Science: Computational Biology 11(8) , e1004455.

    Correspondence Feng Ge, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 China.

    Tel: (86) 10 64807123; Fax: (86) 10 64807099; E‐mail: [email protected], This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    On the other hand, organisms tend to grow faster in warm climates compared to cold ones.

    Moreover, small organisms and organisms from warm climates consume more resources (per mass unit) than large organisms and those living in cold climates. Scientists suggested that these patterns are explained by the role that body mass and temperature play on the metabolism of individuals, namely the ensemble of the chemical reactions that keep them alive. summarized and formalized what they called the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE), centered on the following equation:.

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